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Rationale
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Used worldwide, and often in combination with life expectancy at birth, life expectancy at age 65 is understood as a measure of the general health of the older population. By definition, life expectancy is affected by age- and sex-specific mortality rates for the 65 and older population in a particular reference period. Life expectancy measures quantity rather than quality of life.

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Interpretation
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A higher life expectancy at age 65 is considered an indicator of better overall health of the older population.

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HSP Framework Dimension
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Health System Outcomes: Improve health status of Canadians

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Areas of Need
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Not applicable

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Targets/Benchmarks
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Not applicable

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References
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Goodyear M, Malhotra N. Life-tables and their demographic applications. Accessed January 22August 16, 2018.

Statistics Canada. Methods for Constructing Life Tables for Canada, Provinces and Territories. 2018.

Statistics Canada. Health indicators definitions and data sources. Accessed January 22August 16, 2018.

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Data Sources
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Demography division, Statistics Canada, OECD, Vital Statistics - Death Database, Statistics Canada, Statistics Canada, CANSIM Table 102-430813-10-0063-01: Life expectancy, at birth and at age 65, by sex, three-year average, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions and peer groups, occasional.

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Available Data Years
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Type of Year:
Calendar
First Available Year:
2009 2011
Last Available Year:
2013 2015

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Geographic Coverage
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All provinces/territories

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Reporting Level/Disaggregation
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International, National, Province/Territory, Region, Neighbourhood Income Quintile

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Caveats and Limitations
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This indicator does not provide information on the individual causes of death or on quality of life for the older population.

The data is based on 2015 health region boundaries. For complete Canada coverage, each northern territory represents a health region.

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Trending Issues
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The methods for estimating mortality and death probability at advanced ages were changed to better acknowledge characteristics of death in advanced ages, particularly in terms of small sample sizes. These changes apply to the construction of life tables for the period 2005 to 2007 onward. The impact of these changes on life expectancy for Canada as a whole is minimal, with a difference of 0.07 years.

National estimates are available in 10-year intervals starting in 1920 and annually starting in 1979. Provincial/territorial estimates are available annually from 1979 to 2006. Separate estimates for Nunavut and the Northwest Territories are available annually from 1999 to 2006. From 1979 to 1999, estimates are available for the two territories combined as "Northwest Territories including Nunavut."

Estimates based on three years of pooled data are available at the provincial level from 1992 to 1994 onward; however, the territories are presented as a group for the period between 1992 to 1994 and 1997 to 1999.

Estimates based on three years of pooled data are available at the regional level from 2000 to 2002 forward, with the most current data being for 2012 2014 to 20142016.

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Comments
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Life expectancy at age 65 does not provide information about the quality of life of the older population. Other measures have been developed using a composite of morbidity and mortality data. For example, health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE) at age 65 is the average number of remaining years that an individual is expected to live in a healthy state (PHAC, 2012).

Indicator results are based on three years of pooled data. The reference point reflects the mid-point of a three-year period.

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