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Description
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Number of years a person would be expected to live, starting from age 65, if the age- and sex-specific mortality rates for a given reference period were held constant over his or her life span
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Calculation: Description
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Cumulative number of person-years lived by persons age 65 and older, divided by the number of persons age 65 and older in the initial cohort

A period life table approach is used, applying the age- and sex-specific mortality rates for a given reference period to a hypothetical cohort.
Life tables are usually constructed separately for men and women because of their different mortality rates.

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Calculation: Geographic Assignment
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Place of residence

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Calculation: Type of Measurement
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Average or mean

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Calculation: Adjustment Applied
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None

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Calculation: Method of Adjustment
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Not applicable
Standard Population:
Not applicable

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Denominator
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Description:
Number of persons = those Population age 65 in an initial cohort of 100,000 people

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Numerator
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Description:
Cumulative number of person-years lived by persons age 65 and older, for a cohort of 100,000 persons

Age- and sex-specific mortality rates corresponding to the reference period are applied to a hypothetical cohort, typically of 100,000.

Starting at age 65, the probability of dying at each age or age interval is applied to the number of people surviving to that age or to the beginning of the age interval, respectively.

Exclusions:
Rates used by Statistics Canada to calculate life expectancy are calculated with data that excludes the following:

1. Births to mothers who are not residents of Canada

2. Births to mothers who are residents of Canada whose province or territory of residence was unknown

3. Deaths of non-residents of Canada

4. Deaths of residents of Canada whose province or territory of residence was unknown

5. Deaths for which age or sex of the decedent was unknown

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Rationale
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Used worldwide, and often in combination with life expectancy at birth, life expectancy at age 65 is understood as a measure of the general health of the older population. By definition, life expectancy is affected by age- and sex-specific mortality rates for the 65 and older population in a particular reference period. Life expectancy measures quantity rather than quality of life.

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Interpretation
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A higher life expectancy at age 65 is considered an indicator of better overall health of the older population.

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HSP Framework Dimension
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Health System Outcomes: Improve health status of Canadians

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Areas of Need
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Not applicable

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Targets/Benchmarks
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Not applicable

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References
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Goodyear M, Malhotra N. Life-tables and their demographic applications. http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/health-information/3a-populations/life-tables-demographic-applications. Updated 2007. Accessed September 13, 2016.Martel L, Provost M, Lebel A, Coulombe S, Sherk AAccessed August 16, 2018.

Statistics Canada. Methods for Constructing Life Tables for Canada, Provinces and Territories, Catalogue No.84-538-X. Ottawa, ON: Minister of Industry; 2012. http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/bsolc/olc-cel/olc-cel?catno=84-538-X&lang=eng. Accessed September 13, 2016.. 2018.

Statistics Canada. Health Indicators Definitions and Data Sources, Catalogue No. 82-221-XIE. 2000. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-221-x/4060874-eng.htm. Accessed September 13, 2016.

Statistics Canada. Life Tables, Canada, Provinces and Territories, 2007 to 2009. Ottawa, ON: Minister of Industry; 2012. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/84-537-x/84-537-x2013003-eng.pdf. Accessed September 13, 2016.

indicators definitions and data sources. Accessed August 16, 2018.

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Data Sources
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Demography division, Statistics Canada, OECD, Vital Statistics - Death Database, Statistics Canada, Statistics Canada, Table 13-10-0063-01: Life expectancy, at birth and at age 65, by sex, three-year average, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions and peer groups

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Available Data Years
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Type of Year:
Calendar
First Available Year:
2000 2011
Last Available Year:
2009 2015

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Geographic Coverage
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All provinces/territories

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Reporting Level/Disaggregation
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International, National, Province/Territory, Region, Neighbourhood Income Quintile

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Caveats and Limitations
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This indicator does not provide information on the individual causes of death or on quality of life for the older population.

The data is based on 2011 2015 health region boundaries.

Data may not be available for Manitoba regional health authorities due to changes in regional boundaries that have occurred since 2011.

Data may not be available for Nova Scotia regional health authorities due to changes in regional boundaries that have occurred since 2014.

Data may not be available for B.C. regional health authorities as the data for some indicators is available at only the health service delivery area level.

For complete Canada coverage, each northern territory represents a health region.

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Trending Issues
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The methods for estimating mortality and death probability at advanced ages were changed to better acknowledge characteristics of death in advanced ages, particularly in terms of small sample sizes. These changes apply to the construction of life tables for the period 2005 to 2007 onward. The impact of these changes on life expectancy for Canada as a whole is minimal, with a difference of 0.07 years.

National estimates are available in 10-year intervals starting in 1920 and annually starting in 1979. Provincial/territorial estimates are available annually from 1979 to 2006. Separate estimates for Nunavut and the Northwest Territories are available annually from 1999 to 2006. From 1979 to 1999, estimates are available for the two territories combined as "Northwest Territories including Nunavut."

Estimates based on three years of pooled data are available at the provincial level from 1992 to 1994 onward; however, the territories are presented as a group for the period between 1992–1994 and 1997–19991992 to 1994 and 1997 to 1999.

Estimates based on three years of pooled data are available at the regional level from 2000–2002 forward2000 to 2002 forward, with the most current data being for 2014 to 2016.

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Comments
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Life expectancy at age 65 does not provide information about the quality of life of the older population. Other measures have been developed using a composite of morbidity and mortality data. For example, health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE) at age 65 is the average number of remaining years that an individual is expected to live in a healthy state (PHAC, 2012).

Indicator results are based on three years of pooled data. The reference point reflects the mid-point of a three-year period.

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