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Avoidable Deaths From Treatable Causes
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Short/Other Names
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Avoidable Mortality From Treatable Causes

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Description
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Premature deaths that could potentially have been avoided through secondary or tertiary prevention. Mortality from treatable causes is a subset of potentially avoidable mortality.

For further details, please see the General Methodology Notes.

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Interpretation
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Lower rates are desirable.
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HSP Framework Dimension
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Health System Outcomes: Improve health status of Canadians

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Areas of Need
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Not applicable

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All provinces/territories

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National, Province/Territory, Region

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Indicator Results
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Accessing Indicator Results on Your Health System: In Depth

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Avoidable Deaths From Treatable Causes
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Short/Other Names
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Avoidable Mortality From Treatable Causes

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Description
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Premature deaths that could potentially have been avoided through secondary or tertiary prevention. Mortality from treatable causes is a subset of potentially avoidable mortality.

For further details, please see the General Methodology Notes.

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Calculation: Description
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Mortality rate:

(Number of deaths at age younger than 75 from treatable causes ÷ Total mid-year population younger than age 75) × 100,000 (age-adjusted)

Potential years of life lost (PYLL):

(The sum of differences between age 75 and age of death from treatable causes ÷ Total mid-year population younger than age 75) × 100,000 (age-adjusted)

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Place of residence

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Rate - per 100,000; also expressed as PYLL per 100,000 population

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Calculation: Adjustment Applied
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Age-adjusted

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Calculation: Method of Adjustment
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Direct Standardization
Standard Population:
Canada 2011

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Description:
Total mid-year population younger than age 75

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Description:
Mortality rate:

Number of deaths at age younger than 75 from treatable causes

Potential years of life lost (PYLL):

The sum of differences between 75 and age of death from treatable causes
Inclusions:
For the list of treatable causes, refer to the List of conditions for Potentially Avoidable Mortality and Mortality From Preventable and Treatable Causes Indicators document.

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Rationale
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Mortality from treatable causes focuses on premature deaths that could potentially be avoided through secondary and tertiary prevention efforts, such as screening for and effective treatment of an existing disease. The indicator informs efforts aimed at reducing the number of people who die once they have the condition, or case-fatality reduction.

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Interpretation
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Lower rates are desirable.

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HSP Framework Dimension
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Health System Outcomes: Improve health status of Canadians

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Areas of Need
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Not applicable

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Targets/Benchmarks
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Not applicable

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References
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Australian Government. National Healthcare Agreement: PI 20-Potentially Avoidable Deaths, 2010. http://meteor.aihw.gov.au/content/index.phtml/itemId/394495. Published June 8, 2011. Accessed on October 19, 2011.

Ministry of Health. Saving Lives: Amenable Mortality in New Zealand, 1996-2006. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Health; 2010.

Nolte E, McKee CM. Does Health Care Save Lives? Avoidable Mortality Revisited. London, UK: The Nuffield Trust; 2004.

Office for National Statistics (United Kingdom). Definitions of Avoidable Mortality. http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171778_264958.pdf. Published May 15, 2012. Accessed on October 19, 2011.

Page A, Tobias M, Wright C, et al. Australian and New Zealand Atlas of Avoidable Mortality. Adelaide, Australia: PHIDU, University of Adelaide; 2006.

Rutstein DD, Berenberg W, Chalmers TC, et al. Measuring the Quality of Medical Care: A Clinical Method. _N Engl J Med_1976( 294): 582-588.

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Data Sources
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Demography division, Statistics Canada, Vital Statistics - Death Database, Statistics Canada

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Available Data Years
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Type of Year:
Calendar
First Available Year:
2007
Last Available Year:
2014

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Geographic Coverage
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All provinces/territories

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National, Province/Territory, Region

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Update Frequency
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Every year

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Indicator Results
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Web Tool:
Your Health System: In Depth
URL:
Accessing Indicator Results on Your Health System: In Depth

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Updates
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Not applicable

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It is generally acknowledged that not all deaths from potentially avoidable causes can actually be avoided. For example, some deaths from treatable causes may be unavoidable due to late diagnosis or concurrent health problems, while some deaths from preventable causes could be due to unpredictable events against which no protective measures could have been taken.

An upper age limit of 75 should not imply that some deaths in the population older than 75 could not be avoided. However, multiple comorbidities are common among older adults, making the assignment of a single cause of death challenging.

The indicators will be reviewed periodically to assess the upper age limit and potential new avoidable conditions due to better understanding of disease etiology or advances in treatment.

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Trending Issues
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Not applicable

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Comments
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The indicator is calculated based on three years of pooled data. The reference year reflects the mid-point of a three-year period.

Avoidable mortality indicators were developed based on the Australian Potentially Avoidable Deaths indicator and the U.K. Office for National Statistics' list of causes of avoidable mortality, followed by expert review of the diagnosis codes and rationales for including each condition.

Causes of death were assigned to preventable and treatable subcategories based on two main mechanisms of mortality reduction: incidence and case-fatality reduction. These subcategories are mutually exclusive.

In cases where a prevention/treatment overlap exists, the case was assigned to the preventable category; the exceptions were ischemic heart disease and stroke, where a random half of cases were assigned as preventable and the other half assigned as treatable. However, the mutually exclusive nature of the subcategories does not imply that all cases assigned to the preventable group do not have a treatable component, and vice versa.

More information about the indicator can be found in the In Focus section of Health Indicators 2012, available on CIHI's website (https://secure.cihi.ca/estore/productFamily.htm?locale=en&pf=PFC1791).

Indicator results are also available on

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